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[★]source ポツダム宣言1945年7月26日 ポツダム(potsdam,germany)で署名(外務省訳)

一 吾等合衆國大統領、中華民國政府主席及グレート、ブリテン國總理大臣ハ吾等ノ數億ノ國民ヲ代表シ協議ノ上日本國ニ對シ今次ノ戰爭ヲ終結スルノ機會ヲ與フルコトニ意見一致セリ

二 合衆國、英帝國及中華民國ノ巨大ナル陸、海、空軍ハ西方ヨリ自國ノ陸軍及空軍ニ依ル數倍ノ増強ヲ受ケ日本國ニ對シ最後的打撃ヲ加フルノ態勢ヲ整ヘタリ 右軍事力ハ日本國ガ抵抗ヲ終止スルニ至ル迄同國ニ對シ戰爭ヲ遂行スル一切ノ聯合國ノ決意ニ依リ支持セラレ且鼓舞セラレ居ルモノナリ

三 蹶起セル世界ノ自由ナル人民ノ力ニ對スルドイツ國ノ無益且無意義ナル抵抗ノ結果ハ日本國國民ニ對スル先例ヲ極メテ明白ニ示スモノナリ 現在日本國ニ對シ集結シツツアル力ハ抵抗スルナチスニ對シ適用セラレタル場合ニ於テ全ドイツ國人民ノ土地産業及生活様式ヲ必然的ニ荒廢ニ歸セシメタル力ニ比シ測リ知レザル程度ニ強大ナルモノナリ 吾等ノ決意ニ支持セラルル吾等ノ軍事力ノ最高度ノ使用ハ日本國軍隊ノ不可避且完全ナル壊滅ヲ意味スベク又同様必然的ニ日本國本土ノ完全ナル破滅ヲ意味スベシ

四 無分別ナル打算ニ依リ日本帝國ヲ滅亡ノ淵ニ陥レタル我儘ナル軍國主義的助言者ニ依リ日本國ガ引續キ統御セラルベキカ又ハ理性ノ經路ヲ日本國ガ履ムベキカヲ日本國ガ決定スベキ時期ハ到來セリ

五 吾等ノ條件ハ左ノ如シ
 吾等ハ右條件ヨリ離脱スルコトナカルベシ 右ニ代ル條件存在セズ 吾等ハ遅延ヲ認ムルヲ得ズ

六 吾等ハ無責任ナル軍國主義ガ世界ヨリ驅逐セラルルニ至ル迄ハ平和、安全及正義ノ新秩序ガ生ジ得ザルコトヲ主張スルモノナルヲ以テ日本國國民ヲ欺瞞シ之ヲシテ世界征服ノ擧ニ出ヅルノ過誤ヲ犯サシメタル者ノ権力及勢力ハ永久ニ除去セラレザルベカラズ

七 右ノ如キ新秩序ガ建設セラレ且日本國ノ戰爭遂行能力ガ破砕セラレタルコトノ確證アルニ至ル迄ハ聯合國ノ指定スベキ日本國領域内ノ諸地點ハ吾等ノ茲ニ指示スル基本的目的ノ達成ヲ確保スル為占領セラルベシ

八 カイロ宣言ノ條項ハ履行セラルベク又日本國ノ主權ハ本州、北海道、九州及四國竝ニ吾等ノ決定スル諸小島ニ局限セラルベシ

九 日本國軍隊ハ完全ニ武装ヲ解除セラレタル後各自ノ家庭ニ復歸シ平和的且生産的ノ生活ヲ營ムノ機會ヲ得シメラルベシ

十 吾等ハ日本人ヲ民族トシテ奴隷化セントシ又ハ國民トシテ滅亡セシメントスルノ意圖ヲ有スルモノニ非ザルモ吾等ノ俘虜ヲ虐待セル者ヲ含ム一切ノ戰爭犯罪人ニ對シテハ嚴重ナル処罰ヲ加ヘラルベシ日本國政府ハ日本國國民ノ間ニ於ケル民主主義的傾向ノ復活強化ニ對スル一切ノ障礙ヲ除去スベシ言論、宗教及思想ノ自由竝ニ基本的人権ノ尊重ハ確立セラルベシ

十一 日本國ハ其ノ經濟ヲ支持シ且公正ナル實物賠償ノ取立ヲ可能ナラシムルガ如キ産業ヲ維持スルコトヲ許サルベシ 但シ日本國ヲシテ戰爭ノ為再軍備ヲ為スコトヲ得シムルガ如キ産業ハ此ノ限ニ在ラズ 右目的ノ爲原料ノ入手(其ノ支配トハ之ヲ區別ス)ヲ許可サルベシ 日本國ハ將來世界貿易関係ヘノ參加ヲ許サルベシ

十二 前記諸目的ガ達成セラレ且日本國國民ノ自由ニ表明セル意思ニ從ヒ平和的傾向ヲ有シ且責任アル政府ガ樹立セラルルニ於テハ聯合國ノ占領軍ハ直ニ日本國ヨリ撤収セラルベシ

十三 吾等ハ日本國政府ガ直ニ全日本國軍隊ノ無條件降伏ヲ宣言シ且右行動ニ於ケル同政府ノ誠意ニ付適當且充分ナル保障ヲ提供センコトヲ同政府ニ對シ要求ス右以外ノ日本國ノ選択ハ迅速且完全ナル壊滅アルノミトス



[★] 詔 書 朕深ク世界ノ大勢ト帝国ノ現状トニ鑑ミ非常ノ措置ヲ以テ時局ヲ収拾セムト欲シ茲ニ忠良ナル爾臣民ニ告ク

 朕ハ帝国政府ヲシテ米英支蘇四国ニ対シ其ノ共同宣言ヲ受諾スル旨通告セシメタリ

 抑々帝国臣民ノ庸寧ヲ図リ万邦共栄ノ楽ヲ階ニスルハ皇祖皇宗ノ遺範ニシテ朕ノ眷々措カサル所曩ニ米英二国二占宣戦セル所以モ亦実ニ帝国ノ自存ト東亜ノ安定トヲ庶幾スルニ出テ他国ノ主権ヲ排シ領土ヲ侵スカ如キハ固ヨリ朕カ志ニアラス 然ルニ交戦己二四歳ヲ閲シ朕カ陸海将兵ノ奮戦朕カ百僚有司ノ励精朕カ一億衆庶ノ奉公各々最善ヲ尽セルニ拘ラス戦局必スシモ好転セス世界ノ大勢亦我ニ利アラス加之敵ハ新ニ残虐ナル爆弾ヲ使用シテ頻ニ無辜ヲ殺傷シ惨害ノ及フ所眞ニ測ルヘカラサルニ至ル

 而モ尚交戦ヲ継続センカ終ニ我民族ノ減亡ヲ招来スルノミナラス延テ人類ノ文明ヲモ破却スヘシ斯クノ如クハ朕何ヲ以テ億兆ノ赤子ヲ保シ皇祖皇宗ノ神霊ニ謝セムヤ是レ朕カ帝国政府ヲシテ共同言ニ応セシムルニ至レル所以ナリ

 朕ハ帝国ト共ニ終始東亜ノ解放ニ協カセル諸盟邦ニ対シ遺憾ノ意ヲ表セサルヲ得ス 帝国臣民ニシテ戦陣ニ死シ職域ニ殉シ非命ニ斃レタル者及其ノ遺族ニ想ヲ致セハ五内爲ニ裂ク且戦傷ヲ負ヒ災禍ヲ蒙リ家業ヲ失ヒタル者ノ厚生ニ至リテハ朕ノ深ク軫念スル所ナリ惟フニ今後帝国ノ受クヘキ苦難ハ固ヨリ尋常ニアラス爾臣民ノ衷情モ朕善ク之ヲ知ル 然レトモ朕ハ時運ノ趨ク所堪へ難キヲ堪へ忍ヒ難キヲ忍ヒ以テ万世ノ為ニ太平ヲ開カント欲ス

 朕ハ茲ニ国体ヲ護持シ得テ忠良ナル爾臣民ノ赤誠ニ信倚シ常二爾臣民ト共ニ在リ若シ夫レ情ノ激スル所濫ニ事端ヲ滋クシ或ハ同胞排擠互ニ時局ヲ乱リ爲ニ大道ヲ誤リ信義ヲ世界ニ失フカ如キハ朕最モ之ヲ戒ム

 宜シク挙国一家子孫相伝へ確ク神州ノ不滅ヲ信シ任重クシテ道遠キヲ念ヒ総力ヲ将来ノ猿設ニ傾ケ道義ヲ篤クシ志操ヲ鞏クシ誓テ国体ノ精華ヲ発揚シ世界ノ進運ニ後レサラムコトヲ期スヘシ

 爾臣民其レ克ク朕カ意ヲ体セヨ

  御名御璽

 昭和二十年八月十四日

  各国務大臣副署




[★] index
the potsdam declaration(1) we, the president of the united states, the president of the national government of the republic of china and the prime minister of great britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.

(2) the prodigious land, sea and air forces of the united states, the british empire and of china, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west are poised to strike the final blows upon japan. this military power is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the allied nations to prosecute the war against japan until she ceases to resist.

(3) the result of the futile and senseless german resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of japan. the might that now converges on japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole german people. the full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, will mean the inevitable and complete destruction of the japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the japanese homeland.

(4) the time has come for japan to decide whether she will continue to be controlled by those self-willed militaristic advisers whose unintelligent calculations have brought the empire of japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether she will follow the path of reason.

(5) following are our terms. we will not deviate from them. there are no alternatives. we shall brook no delay.

(6) there must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of japan into embarking on world conquest - for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.

(7) until such a new order is established and until there is convincing proof that japan's war-making power is destroyed, points in japanese territory to be designated by the allies shall be occupied to secure the achievement of the basic objectives we are here setting forth.

(8) the terms of the cairo declaration shall be carried out and japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of honshu, hokkaido, kyushu, shikoku and such minor islands as we determine.

(9) the japanese military forces, after being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.

(10) we do not intend that the japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. the japanese government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the japanese people. freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.

(11) japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in war. to this end, access to, as distinguished from control of raw materials shall be permitted. eventual japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.

(12) the occupying forces of the allies shall be withdrawn from japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.

(13) we call upon the government of japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all the japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. the alternative for japan is prompt and utter destruction.

[★] sourceforeign relations of the united states:
the conference of berlin, 2 vols. (washington, d.c.: government printing office, 1960), ii, 147~1476.

on july 26 a declaration was issued, signed by the president and prime minister churchill and with the concurrence of generalissimo chiang kai-shek of nationalist china, that in its result was as fateful, if not more so, than the instruction of general handy to general spaatz. if the recipient of the potsdam declaration, the government of japan, had responded with the surrender that the president and prime minister asked for, the instruction of the day before would not have been carried out.
unfortunately the declaration was not an explicit warning that the nited states possessed nuclear weapons and would use them. truman was unwilling to be explicit, for congress had tolerated an unknown project costing nearly $2 billion and might object to an explanation offered an enemy government without informing the legislative body that paid the bill.
perhaps because the warning was only a general statement, the japanese govrnment responded with something approaching contempt. the prime minister chose to ignore it, employing the ambiguous word mokusatsu, which means literally "to kill with silence," although it carries a nuance of uncertainty. tokyo radio used the word, saying the government would mokusatsu the declaration and fight on. the english translation became "reject," and the president took it as a rebuff. years later he remembered, "when we asked them to surrender at potsdam, they gave us a very snotty answer. that is what i got. . . . they told me to go to hell, words to that effect."
in addition to being unaware that the united states possessed nuclear weapons, the japanese leaders also believed, foolishly, that they could negotiate with the americans, even though the japanese were thoroughly aware of the rapine and butchery associated with their nation's troops as they fought across east asia. involved in those deeds was the emperor himself about whose complicity the west knew little at the time and continued to know little until after the death of hirohito, when officials of the imperial household revealed quite a diferent emperor than the world seen: the emperor supported his military commanders and often gave political advice.
as the war was coming to an end the americans, british, and soviets were publicly stating that they would arraign war criminals, but tokyo officials deluded themselves into believing it would be possible to bargain to save the people involved; they had in mind an arrangement that would put the matter delicately, in terms of preserving the imperial institution, so that japanese authorities rather than the allies would hold war-crimes trials.

truman and the bomb, a documentary history
chapter 7: the potsdam declaration, july 26
edited by robert h. ferrell


[★] index

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